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What is Pectin?
1. Structure    2. Types of Pectin    3. Discovery & History    4. Commercial Production

4. Commercial Production

Process details vary between different companies, but the general process is as follows:

The pectin factory receives apple residue (pomace) or citrus peel from a number of juice producers. In most cases this material has been washed and dried so it can be transported and stored without spoilage.
  If the raw material is dry, it can be assessed and selected from store as required for different purposes. If wet citrus peel is used, it has to be used as received, as it deteriorates very rapidly.
The raw material is added to hot water containing a processing aid (usually a mineral acid, although others such as enzymes could be used).
  Water alone will only extract a very limited amount of pectin.
After time to extract the pectin, the remaining solids are separated, and the solution clarified and concentrated by removing some of the water.
  The solids can be separated by filter, centrifuge, or other means. The solution is then filtered again to clarify it if necessary.
Either directly, or after some further holding time to modify the pectin, the concentrated liquid is mixed with an alcohol to precipitate the pectin.
  The pectin can be partly de-esterified at this stage, or earlier or later in the process..
The precipitate is separated, washed with more alcohol to remove impurities, and dried.
The alcohol wash may contain salts or alkalis to convert the pectin to a partial salt form (sodium, potassium, calcium, ammonium)
  The alcohol (usually isopropanol) is recovered very efficiently, and reused to precipitate further pectin.
Before or after drying, the pectin may be treated with ammonia to produce an amidated pectin if required.
  Amidated pectins are preferred for some applications.
The dry solid is ground to a powder, tested, and blended with sugar or dextrose to a standard gelling power like 150 Sag using the IPPA-Sag-method or other functional property such as viscosity or stabilising power.
  Pectins are also sold blended with other approved food additives for use in specific products.

1. Structure    2. Types of Pectin    3. Discovery & History    4. Commercial Production

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FACTS ABOUT PECTIN: What is Pectin · Safety and Legal Status · Applications
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